Wolf Sub-Speces

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This page contains some basic information on some differnt type of wolves.

Name: Grey Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus

Habitat: Wolves were once widely distributed across much of Eurasia from the Arctic to the Mediterranean, and in North America, their distribution extended from the far north to the Sierra Madre in Mexico. Today the grey wolf can only be found in Canada, Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Wisconsin in the USA, Russia, and pockets of East Europe.
Diet: They feed on large ungulates, beaver, small mammals, domesticated animals and rubbish.

Name: Tundra Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus albus

Habitat: The Tundra Wolf can be found throughout northern Europe and Asia, primarily in the northern arctic and boreal regions of Russia.

Name: Maned Wolf
Scientific name: Chrysocyon brachyurus

Habitat: Unlike other large canids the Maned Wolf does not form packs. It hunts alone, usually between sundown and midnight. It kills its prey by biting on the neck or back, and shaking it violently if necessary. Monogamous pairs may defend a shared territory of about 30 km², though the wolves themselves may seldom meet, outside of mating. The territory is crisscrossed by paths that the wolves create as they patrol at night. Several adults may congregate in the presence of a plentiful food source; a fire-cleared patch of grassland, for example, which would leave small vertebrate prey exposed to foraging wolves.
Diet: The Maned Wolf specializes in small and medium-sized prey, including small mammals, birds, and even fish. A large fraction of its diet is vegetable matter, including sugarcane, tubers, and fruit.

Name: Red Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus rufus

Habitat: The Red Wolf is a North American canid which once roamed throughout the South-Eastern United States and is an ice age survivor of the Late Pleistocene epoch. It lives through the south-eastern parts of the United States, from Texas to Florida.
Diet: The red wolf usually hunts at night, dawn or dusk. It usually feeds alone, though there is evidence of pack hunting behaviour. It is not uncommon for pack members to partition resources. In south-east Texas, the red wolf primarily feeds on nutria, rabbits, Hispid Cotton Rats, Marsh Rice Rats and muskrats.

Name: Ethiopian Wolf
Scientific name: Canis simensis

Habitat: The Ethiopian wolf is found in the Afro-alpine regions of Ethiopia, about 10,000 feet (3,000 m) above sea level. It is the most endangered canid, with only about seven populations remaining, totalling roughly 550 adults. The largest population is found in the Bale Mountains in southern Ethiopia, although there are also smaller populations in the Simien Mountains in the north of the country, and in a few other areas.
Diet: The diet of the Ethiopian wolf is almost exclusively composed of diurnal rodents. One study revealed that rodents account for 96% of all prey, with the endemic giant mole rat being the main food item. In areas where the giant mole rat is absent, the wolf will primarily subsist on the East African mole rat. Other recorded prey species include the black-clawed brush-furred rat, Blick's grass rat, various vlei rats, the yellow-spotted brush-furred rat, young birds, the Ethiopian Highland hare, the Cape hyrax and young of the common duiker, mountain reedbuck and mountain nyala. Sedge leaves are sometimes eaten to aid digestion.

Name: Arctic Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus arctos

Habitat: The Arctic Wolf, also called Polar Wolf or White Wolf, is a mammal of the Canidae family, and a subspecies of the Gray Wolf. Arctic Wolves inhabit the Canadian Arctic and the northern parts of Greenland.
Diet: Arctic wolves, like all wolves, hunt in packs; they mostly prey on Caribou and musk oxen, but will also kill a number of Arctic Hares, seals, ptarmigan and lemmings, as well as other smaller animals. Moose are also common prey; their long legs may render them slow and, at times, stuck, in thick snow, leaving them vulnerable to attacks by wolf packs. Due to the scarcity of grazing plants, they roam large areas to find prey up to and beyond 2,600 square kilometres (1,000 sq mi), and they will follow migrating caribou south during the winter. Recent footage filmed by a BBC Wildlife documentary crew shows Arctic wolves hunting waterfowl.

Name: Eastern Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus lycaon

Habitat: The Eastern Wolf mainly occupies the area in and around Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, and also ventures into adjacent parts of Quebec, Canada. It also may be present in Minnesota and Manitoba.
Diet: The Eastern Wolf preys on White-tailed Deer, Moose, lagomorphs, and rodents including beaver, muskrat, and mice.

Name: Eurasian Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus lupus

Habitat: The Eurasian Wolf is a subspecies of the Grey Wolf. Originally spread over most of Eurasia, with a southern limit of the Himalayas, the Hindukush, the Koppet Dag, the Caucasus, the Black Sea and the Alps, and a northern limit between 60° and 70° northern latitude, it has been pushed back from most of Western Europe and Eastern China, surviving mostly in Central Asia. Currently, it has the largest range among wolf subspecies and is the most common in Europe and Asia, ranging through Western Europe, Scandinavia, Russia, China, Mongolia and the Himalayan Mountains.
Diet: The diet of Eurasian wolves varies enormously throughout their ranges. They commonly prey on medium sized ungulates like moufflon, chamois, saiga, wild boar, red deer, roe deer and livestock. They will occasionally eat smaller prey such as frogs and hares. In Europe, their largest prey is the wisent, while in Asia, it is the yak.

Name: Mexican Gray Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus baileyi

Habitat: Until recent times, the Mexican Wolf ranged the Sonora and Chihuahua Deserts from central Mexico to western Texas, southern New Mexico, and central Arizona. By the turn of the 20th century, reduction of natural prey like deer and elk caused many wolves to begin attacking domestic livestock, which led to intensive efforts by government agencies and individuals to eradicate the Mexican Wolf. Hunters also hunted down the wolf because it killed deer. Trappers and private trappers have also helped in the eradication of the Mexican Wolf. (Note that recent studies completed by genetics experts show evidence of Mexican wolves ranging as far north as Colorado).
These efforts were very successful, and by the 1950s, the Mexican Gray Wolf had been eliminated from the wild. In 1976, the Mexican Gray Wolf was declared an endangered subspecies and has remained so ever since. Today, an estimated 300 Mexican Wolves survive in 49 facilities at the United States and Mexico.
Diet: The Mexican wolf's main prey in the wild is White-Tailed deer, however, it may also eat elk, livestock, pronghorn, rabbits, javelina, and other small mammals.

Name: Italian Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus italicus

Habitat: The Italian Wolf can be found in the Apennine Mountains in Italy. Recently due to an increase in population, the subspecies has also been spotted in areas of Switzerland. During recent years, Italian wolves have also established themselves in Southern France, particularly in the Parc National du Mercantour. It is federally protected in all three countries.
Diet: The Italian Wolf is a nocturnal hunter which feeds primarily on medium sized animals such as Chamois, Roe Deer, Red Deer and Wild Boar. In the absence of such prey items, its diet will also include small animals such as hares and rabbits. An Italian wolf can eat up to 1.5-3 kg of meat a day. It will occasionally consume berries and herbs for roughage. The wolf has adapted well in some urbanised areas and as such, will usually not ignore refuse or domestic animals.

Name: Iberian Wolf
Scientific name: Canis lupus signatus

Habitat: The Iberian wolf inhabits the forest and plains of northern Portugal and north western Spain.
Diet: The Iberian Wolf lives in small packs. It is considered to be beneficial because it keeps the population of wild boar stable, thus allowing some respite to the endangered capercaillie populations which suffers greatly from boar predation. It also eats rabbits, roe deer, red deer, ibexes and even small carnivores and fish. In some places it eats domestic animals such as sheep and calves.

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